Wednesday, May 30, 2007

The Maximum Genetic Diversity Hypothesis

I submitted two papers in April 2007 on a new evolution hypothesis, the Maximum Genetic Diversity Hypothesis (MGDH). The molecular clock hypothesis is really a tautology in many cases. The MGDH offers by far the only logically sound explanation for the remarkable molecular evolution phenomenon that sister species are roughly equally distant to an outgroup. The first paper titled "On genetic diversity and epigenetic complexity" proposes the MGDH and examines how it is supported by the major facts of molecular evolution. The second paper titled "Ancient fossil specimens of extinct species are more distant to an outgroup than extant sister species are" shows that new fossil sequences support the MGDH but falsify the Neo-Darwinian gradual mutation hypothesis. The pdf of the two papers are

The abstracts of the two papers are the following:

On genetic diversity and epigenetic complexity

There is a longstanding paradox in molecular evolution. Despite having different mutation rates, sister species are all roughly equally distant to an outgroup. This paradox has now been resolved by a newly found inverse relationship between genetic diversity and epigenetic complexity. A large number of observations suggest that genetic diversity, i.e., genetic distance or dissimilarity in DNA or protein sequences between individuals or species, has an upper limit. Genetic diversity is restricted by the complexity of epigenetic programs. Organisms of older lineage are less complex or have less complex epigenetic programs that necessarily allow more DNA diversity. The maximum genetic distance between a simple organism and a complex organism is strictly determined by the genetic diversity of the simple organism and is roughly the same as the maximum genetic distance between maximally diverged species of the simple organism. The maximum genetic diversity hypothesis as proposed here suggests that macroevolution from simple to complex organisms involves a punctuational increase in epigenetic complexity that in turn causes a punctuational loss in genetic diversity.

Ancient fossil specimens of extinct species are more distant to an outgroup than extant sister species are

The remarkable molecular equidistance phenomenon requires that ancient specimens cannot possibly be more distant to an outgroup than extant sister species are, if the Neo-Darwinian gradual mutation hypothesis is true. This has now been contradicted by my analysis of the published DNA/peptide sequences of fossil specimens of extinct species. Neanderthals are significantly more distant to chimpanzees and gorillas than modern humans are. Dinosaurs are significantly more distant to frogs than extant birds are. Mastodons are significantly more distant to opossums than other placental mammals are. Also contrary to the predictions of the Neo--Darwinian gradual mutation hypothesis, the genetic distance between dinosaurs and mastodons is greater than that between extant birds and mammals. These findings support the maximum genetic diversity hypothesis.

1 comment:

gnomon said...

The medaka genome

New papers continue to provide support for the maximum genetic diversity hypothesis (MGDH). The sequencing of the medaka genome (Nature, 447:714-719, 2007, June 7) reveals an extremely high SNP rate of 3.42%, which is 3 fold higher than the distance between chimps and humans and 8 fold higher than the SNP rate among inbreed mouse strains and 34 fold higher than the SNP rate of humans. The SNP rate of medaka fish is the highest seen in any vertebrate species. This is of course what is predicted by the MGDH: fish is the least complex vertebrate and should have the highest DNA diversity among vertebrates. The two interbreeding populations of medaka seperated only 4 million years ago and yet have reached a genetic distance that is 3 fold higher than that of two distinct primate species, humans and chimp, that seperated 5-7 million years ago. Clearly, gradual accumulation of genetic distance has little to do with macro-speciation.

As new papers come out in the future, I will continue to write comments to update the evidence for the MGDH.