Tuesday, September 22, 2009

Primate phylogeny: molecular evidence for a pongid clade excluding humans and a prosimian clade containing tarsiers

I posted a new manuscript at Nature Precedings:


titled: Primate phylogeny: molecular evidence for a pongid clade excluding humans and a prosimian clade containing tarsiers


Interpretations of molecular data by the modern evolution theory are often sharply inconsistent with paleontological results. This is to be expected since the theory is only true for microevolution and yet fossil records are mostly about macroevolution. The maximum genetic diversity (MGD) hypothesis is a more coherent and complete account of evolution that has yet to meet a single contradiction. Here, molecular data were analyzed based on the MGD to resolve key questions of primate phylogeny. A new method was developed from a novel result predicted by the MGD: genetic non-equidistance to a simpler taxon only in slow but not in fast evolving sequences given non-equidistance in time. This ‘slow clock’ method showed that humans are genetically more distant to orangutans than African apes are and separated from the pongid clade (containing orangutan and African apes) 17.3 million years ago. Also, tarsiers are genetically closer to lorises than simian primates are, suggesting a tarsier-loris clade to the exclusion of simian primates. The validity and internal coherence of the primate phylogeny here were independently verified. The molecular split time of human and pongid calibrated from the fossil record of gorilla, or the fossil times for the radiation of anthropoids/mammals at the K/T boundary and for the Eutheria-Metatheria split in the Early Cretaceous, were independently confirmed from molecular dating calibrated using the fossil split times of tarsier-loris and two other pairs of mammals (mouse-rat and opossum-kangaroo). This remarkable and unprecedented concordance between molecules and fossils provides the latest confirmation of the inseparable unity of genotype and phenotype and the unmatched value of MGD in a coherent interpretation of life history.

One week ago, I also sent the manuscript to a few dozen colleagues to seek their comments. None have responded with any scientific comments. Below is my email to them:

Thanks again for the helpful discussions on the primate fossil literature in connection with my molecular results on primate phylogeny. As promised I am sending the full manuscript for your critical reading, entitled: “Primate phylogeny: molecular evidence for a pongid clade excluding humans and a prosimian clade containing tarsiers.” I also here send it to a select group of colleagues, most of whom I either communicated with before or whose works I have cited in the manuscript here. Any comments will be greatly appreciated. You will be most welcome if you have any information you can share that would either invalidate or support the work.

Since the work contradicts the paradigm, a tip to help understand it is to assume that everything you know about the molecular clock and the neutral theory is wrong for macroevolution while fine for microevolution. It also helps to know in order for you not to immediately view it crazy that the work was from a professional who is the only person in 46 years to finally catch a major mistake made by the founders of the molecular clock idea. Not to be immodest but just in case you automatically assume your view superior to mine simply because it is the party line for 46 years. The clock and the neutral theory should never have been invented in the first place for macroevolution and should never lasted/dominated for as long as nearly a half century if the mistake had been caught earlier. You will read about this mistake in the introduction of the attached manuscript. Such mistake of course automatically invalidates all of the deductions of that mistake, which include all existing molecular datings on macroevolution events. Thus, as things stand today, we either have no molecular dating information on human-ape split or any macroevo spilt for that matter or we have such information here in this manuscript correctly calculated for the first time. I know it is correct from the simple fact that it is completely (rather than only partially as in previous work) consistent with the well established fossil records as well as internally coherent.

So, if there is anything in the manuscript that may seem insane on first glance, just think two more times and remember Emily Dickinson: “Much madness is divinest sense, To a discerning eye; Much sense the starkest madness.” Most importantly for understanding the work, a person must fancy himself a disinterested seeker of truth, as a real scientist should be. As Sri Ram said it: “Only a disinterested search can result in Truth, for every form of self-interest will lead only to a creation which will serve that self-interest.”

Good luck to you all.


Shi Huang, Ph.D


Central South University

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